Instruction is learner-oriented, designed to meet the communication and content needs of the particular group of learners, and informed by TESL theory and practice.
41. Instruction fosters a supportive community of learners in which learners feel comfortable, take risks with language, and engage in purposeful learning.
42. Instruction is both guided by the objectives and goals of the curriculum and responsive to the needs and goals of the learners.
43. Class content (e.g., themes, listening/reading texts, speaking/writing topics, communicative tasks) is meaningful, appealing and engaging, with a transparent connection to the learners’ real‐world needs and future goals.
44. As learners interact with listening and reading texts, they identify and practice skills and strategies to access the content and to accomplish meaningful, real‐life tasks.
45. Instruction in speaking and writing provides a balance between fluency and accuracy, along with the opportunity to practice and incorporate feedback, as learners use their productive language skills to accomplish tasks.
46. (a)Explicit instruction of how the grammatical system works to express meanings is integrated into meaning‐focused language teaching. (b) It encourages learners to notice and analyze the forms, meanings, and uses of target structures; provides ample exposure to target structures; provides opportunity for pushed output, in which learners are encouraged to use new structures in spoken and written communication; and provides corrective feedback.
47. (a)Explicit pronunciation instruction focuses on those factors that affect intelligibility. (b) Pronunciation instruction raises awareness of the characteristics of spoken English and provides opportunity for both focused and communicative practice.
48. (a)Vocabulary instruction encourages learners to notice and focus on new vocabulary items (single words as well as formulaic sequences) and links the forms of new vocabulary to meanings, collocations, and uses. (b) It provides multiple opportunities to retrieve new vocabulary items; provides opportunities for pushed output, in which learners are encouraged to use new vocabulary items in spoken and written communication; and includes the explicit formal teaching of vocabulary learning strategies.
49. Technology is used to encourage learners to explore and create language, as well as to use language to explore ideas, solve problems, develop new skills, and negotiate and communicate with an expanded audience.
50. Instructional activities are culturally sensitive, and they encourage learners to share and celebrate aspects of their cultures, to explore their own and others’ worldviews, and to expand their capacity to live and work in Canada.
51. Instruction fosters independence and autonomous learning as learners take responsibility for and manage their own learning.